Optimal corrugated board – what does it mean?

Polish Paper Review, Vol. 78(09), 517-524, 2022
Corrugated board is characterized by an excellent ratio of load capacity to its volume. This means that with a relatively low weight, this material has surprisingly high strength, which is most influenced by its multi-layer structure, in particular the use of alternating flat and corrugated layers. The geometry and structure of the corrugated board resembles an orthotropic sandwich panels, which are characterized by very high compressive strength and bending stiffness in both directions…..

Influence of Analog and Digital Crease Lines on Mechanical Parameters of Corrugated Board and Packaging

Sensors, Vol. 22(13), 4800, 2022
When producing packaging from corrugated board, material weakening often occurs both during the die-cutting process and during printing. While the analog lamination and/or printing processes that degrade material can be easily replaced with a digital approach, the die-cutting process remains overwhelmingly analog. Recently, new innovative technologies have emerged that have begun to replace or at least supplement old techniques….

Influence of initial imperfections on edge crush resistance of corrugated board

Polish Paper Review, Vol. 78(06), 337-341, 2022
Recycled, lightweight papers that are increasingly used in the production of corrugated board are very prone to buckling. Even without preload or production stresses, both the flat layers (liners) and the fluting layers are slightly curved. Additionally, each, even a small, crush of the corrugated board slightly changes the shape of the corrugated layers and often leads to micro-damage and delamination, i.e. breaking the connections between cellulose fibers…

From paper to corrugated board – modeling the edge crush test

Polish Paper Review, Vol. 78(05), 271-277, 2022
Designing corrugated board packaging is a real challenge, especially when the packaging material comes from multiple recycling. Recycling itself is a pro-ecological and absolutely necessary process, but the mechanical properties of materials that are processed many times deteriorate with the number of cycles. Manufacturers are trying to use unprecedented design methods to preserve the load bearing capacity of packaging, even when the material itself is of deteriorating quality…

Relationship between SCT of paper and ECT of single-wall corrugated board

Polish Paper Review, Vol. 78(04), 210-216, 2022
Corrugated board is a material composed of several alternating flat and corrugated layers of paper. The basis weight of the individual layers is usually selected in the range of 80-180 g/m2. Both the basis weight and the ratio of virgin to recycle fibers of the selected paper depend on its intended use in the production of corrugated board. For flat layers, papers containing some virgin fibers are most often used, while for corrugated layers, mainly lighter recycled papers are used…

Optimal Design of Double-Walled Corrugated Board Packaging

Materials, Vol. 15(06), 2149, 2022
Designing corrugated board packaging is a real challenge, especially when the packaging material comes from multiple recycling. Recycling itself is a pro-ecological and absolutely necessary process, but the mechanical properties of materials that are processed many times deteriorate with the number of cycles. Manufacturers are trying to use unprecedented design methods to preserve the load bearing capacity of packaging, even when the material itself is of deteriorating quality…

Non‐Local Sensitivity Analysis and Numerical   Homogenization in Optimal Design of Single‐Wall Corrugated Board Packaging

Materials, Vol. 15(03), 0720, 2022
The optimal selection of the composition of corrugated cardboard dedicated to specific packaging structures is not an easy task. The use of lighter boards saves material, but at the same time increases the risk of not meeting the guaranteed load capacity. Therefore, the answer to the question “in which layer the basis weight of the paper should be increased?” is not simple or obvious. The method proposed here makes it easy to understand which components and to what extent they affect the load‐bearing capacity of packages of various dimensions…

Analytical Determination of the Bending Stiffness of a Five-Layer Corrugated Cardboard with Imperfections

Materials, Vol. 15(02), 0663, 2022
The standard edge crush test (ECT) allows the determination of the crushing strength of the corrugated cardboard. Unfortunately, this test cannot be used to estimate the compressive stiffness, which is an equally important parameter. This is because any attempt to determine this parameter using current lab equipment quickly ends in a fiasco. The biggest obstacle is obtaining a reliable measurement of displacements and strains in the corrugated cardboard sample…

The influence of analog and digital printing on the strength parameters of corrugated board

Polish Paper Review, Vol. 77(11),593-599, 2021
After production, the corrugated board undergoes further processing before it is finally formed into a specific shape, e.g. a package or a stand. Converting processes include, but are not limited to, printing, laminating, cutting, gluing and folding. All of them affect, to a greater or lesser extent, the strength parameters of the corrugated board…

Numerical homogenization of multi-layered corrugated cardboard with creasing or perforation

Materials, Vol. 14(14), 3786, 2021
The corrugated board packaging industry is increasingly using advanced numerical tools to design and estimate the load capacity of its products. This is why numerical analyses are becoming a common standard in this branch of manufacturing…

Crushing of single-walled corrugated board during converting: experimental and numerical study

Energies, Vol. 14(11), 3203, 2021
Corrugated cardboard is an ecological material, mainly because, in addition to virgin cellulose fibers also the fibers recovered during recycling process are used in its production. However, the use of recycled fibers causes slight deterioration of the mechanical properties of the corrugated board….

Full-field measurements in the edge crush test of a corrugated board – analytical and numerical predictive models

Materials, Vol. 14(11), 2840, 2021
This article focuses on the derivation of simplified predictive models for the identification of the overall compressive stiffness and strength of corrugated cardboards. As a representative example an unsymmetrical 5-ply sample (with E and B flute) was used in this study…

Determination of transverse shear stiffness of sandwich panels with a corrugated core by numerical homogenization

Materials, Vol. 14(8), 1976, 2021
In this work, the method proposed by Biancolini is extended to include the possibility of determining, apart from the tensile and flexural stiffnesses, also the transverse shear stiffness of the homogenized corrugated board….

Estimation of the compressive strength of corrugated cardboard boxes with various perforations

Energies, Vol. 14(4), 1095, 2021
This paper presents a modified analytical formula for estimating the static top-to-bottom compressive strength of corrugated board packaging with different perforations. The analytical framework is based here on Heimerl’s assumption…

Estimation of the compressive strength of corrugated cardboard boxes with various openings

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Energies, Vol. 14(1), 155, 2021
This paper presents mixed analytical/numerical method for estimating the static top-tobottom compressive strength of corrugated packaging with different ventilation openings and holes,
in which the torsional and shear stiffness of corrugated cardboard as well as the panel depth-to-width
ratio are included…

Torsional and Transversal Stiffness of Orthotropic Sandwich Panels

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Materials 2020, Vol. 13(21), 5016, 2020
In the present work, an analytical equation describing the plate torsion test taking into account the transverse shear stiffness in sandwich plates is derived and numerically validated. Transverse shear becomes an important component if the analyzed plate or shell is th…

The Role of Buckling in the Estimation of Compressive Strength of Corrugated Cardboard Boxes

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Materials 2020, Vol. 13(20), 4578, 2020
This paper presents analytical methods for estimating the static top-to-bottom compressive strength of simple corrugated packaging, in which the torsional and shear stiffness of corrugated cardboard as well as the panel depth-to-width ratio are included. The methods are…

Role of Transverse Shear Modulus in the Performance of Corrugated Materials

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Materials 2020, Vol. 13(17), 3791, 2020
In a description of materials for orthotropic panels with a soft and/or corrugated core, it is important to correctly determine all constitutive parameters. In laboratory practice, the determination of transverse shear modulus is often overlooked. This paper presents a …

Transverse shear modulus in corrugated materials

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski

Polish Paper Review, Vol. 76(2), pp.103-108, 2020

In the material description of orthotropic panels with a soft and/or corrugated core, it is important to correctly determine all constitutive parameters. Unfortunately, in laboratory practice the determination of shear modulus is often overlooked. This paper presents a …

Analytical verification of popular McKee’s formula

T.Garbowski, M.Kuca , M.Niziałek-Łukawska
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 75(12), pp.767-773, 2019
The paper presents a critical look at the popular method of estimating the static strength of simple corrugated packaging. Although the method is over fifty years old, it has withstood the test of time and is still very popular among packaging designers and the quality …

Computer aided estimation of corrugated board box compression strength. Part 3. Laboratory-numerical procedure for an identification of elastic properties of corrugated board

T.Garbowski, L.Garbowska
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 74(9), pp. 577-585, 2018
Reliable estimation of the bearing capacity of paper and board structures (e.g. flap boxes, SRP / RRP, etc.) is based primarily on a precisely identified set of strength parameters and an appropriate mathematical model with correctly formulated material constitutive equ…

Computer aided estimation of corrugated board box compression strength. Part 2. The sensitivity analysis in selected laboratory tests of corrugated board

T.Garbowski, L.Garbowska
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 74(8), pp. 435-440, 2018
In the numerical (computer) process of determining the load-bearing capacity of corrugated board packaging, a very important step is the precise determination of thematerial parameters of the board. Because corrugated cardboard is a material characterized by high hetero…

Computer aided estimation of corrugated board box compression strength. Part 1. The influence of flute crash on basic properties of corrugated board

T.Garbowski, I.Czelusta, Ł.Graczyk
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 74(6), pp. 381-388, 2018
This work begins a series of publications on the numerical (computer) estimation of the load-bearing capacity of corrugated board packaging. Issues presented in this and subsequent articles are related directly or indirectly to the process of determining the maximum for…

The Sensitivity Analysis of Critical Force in Box Compression Test

T.Garbowski, G.Przybyszewski
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 71(5), pp. 275-280, 2015
The paper presents a detailed analysis of global stability of FEFCO boxes. The analysis assumed that the boxes are made of corrugated cardboard with 3 or 5 layers. The flute cross sections (fluting), due to their periodicity are homogenized (i.e. the effective parameter…