Numerical homogenization of multi-layered corrugated cardboard with creasing or perforation

Materials, Vol. 14(14), 3786, 2021
The corrugated board packaging industry is increasingly using advanced numerical tools to design and estimate the load capacity of its products. This is why numerical analyses are becoming a common standard in this branch of manufacturing…

Crushing of single-walled corrugated board during converting: experimental and numerical study

Energies, Vol. 14(11), 3203, 2021
Corrugated cardboard is an ecological material, mainly because, in addition to virgin cellulose fibers also the fibers recovered during recycling process are used in its production. However, the use of recycled fibers causes slight deterioration of the mechanical properties of the corrugated board….

Full-field measurements in the edge crush test of a corrugated board – analytical and numerical predictive models

Materials, Vol. 14(11), 2840, 2021
This article focuses on the derivation of simplified predictive models for the identification of the overall compressive stiffness and strength of corrugated cardboards. As a representative example an unsymmetrical 5-ply sample (with E and B flute) was used in this study…

Determination of transverse shear stiffness of sandwich panels with a corrugated core by numerical homogenization

Materials, Vol. 14(8), 1976, 2021
In this work, the method proposed by Biancolini is extended to include the possibility of determining, apart from the tensile and flexural stiffnesses, also the transverse shear stiffness of the homogenized corrugated board….

Estimation of the compressive strength of corrugated cardboard boxes with various perforations

Energies, Vol. 14(4), 1095, 2021
This paper presents a modified analytical formula for estimating the static top-to-bottom compressive strength of corrugated board packaging with different perforations. The analytical framework is based here on Heimerl’s assumption…

Estimation of the compressive strength of corrugated cardboard boxes with various openings

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Energies, Vol. 14(1), 155, 2021
This paper presents mixed analytical/numerical method for estimating the static top-tobottom compressive strength of corrugated packaging with different ventilation openings and holes,
in which the torsional and shear stiffness of corrugated cardboard as well as the panel depth-to-width
ratio are included…

Torsional and Transversal Stiffness of Orthotropic Sandwich Panels

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Materials 2020, Vol. 13(21), 5016, 2020
In the present work, an analytical equation describing the plate torsion test taking into account the transverse shear stiffness in sandwich plates is derived and numerically validated. Transverse shear becomes an important component if the analyzed plate or shell is th…

The Role of Buckling in the Estimation of Compressive Strength of Corrugated Cardboard Boxes

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Materials 2020, Vol. 13(20), 4578, 2020
This paper presents analytical methods for estimating the static top-to-bottom compressive strength of simple corrugated packaging, in which the torsional and shear stiffness of corrugated cardboard as well as the panel depth-to-width ratio are included. The methods are…

Role of Transverse Shear Modulus in the Performance of Corrugated Materials

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski, J.K.Grabski
Materials 2020, Vol. 13(17), 3791, 2020
In a description of materials for orthotropic panels with a soft and/or corrugated core, it is important to correctly determine all constitutive parameters. In laboratory practice, the determination of transverse shear modulus is often overlooked. This paper presents a …

Transverse shear modulus in corrugated materials

T.Garbowski, T.Gajewski

Polish Paper Review, Vol. 76(2), pp.103-108, 2020

In the material description of orthotropic panels with a soft and/or corrugated core, it is important to correctly determine all constitutive parameters. Unfortunately, in laboratory practice the determination of shear modulus is often overlooked. This paper presents a …

Analytical verification of popular McKee’s formula

T.Garbowski, M.Kuca , M.Niziałek-Łukawska
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 75(12), pp.767-773, 2019
The paper presents a critical look at the popular method of estimating the static strength of simple corrugated packaging. Although the method is over fifty years old, it has withstood the test of time and is still very popular among packaging designers and the quality …

Computer aided estimation of corrugated board box compression strength. Part 3. Laboratory-numerical procedure for an identification of elastic properties of corrugated board

T.Garbowski, L.Garbowska
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 74(9), pp. 577-585, 2018
Reliable estimation of the bearing capacity of paper and board structures (e.g. flap boxes, SRP / RRP, etc.) is based primarily on a precisely identified set of strength parameters and an appropriate mathematical model with correctly formulated material constitutive equ…

Computer aided estimation of corrugated board box compression strength. Part 2. The sensitivity analysis in selected laboratory tests of corrugated board

T.Garbowski, L.Garbowska
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 74(8), pp. 435-440, 2018
In the numerical (computer) process of determining the load-bearing capacity of corrugated board packaging, a very important step is the precise determination of thematerial parameters of the board. Because corrugated cardboard is a material characterized by high hetero…

Computer aided estimation of corrugated board box compression strength. Part 1. The influence of flute crash on basic properties of corrugated board

T.Garbowski, I.Czelusta, Ł.Graczyk
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 74(6), pp. 381-388, 2018
This work begins a series of publications on the numerical (computer) estimation of the load-bearing capacity of corrugated board packaging. Issues presented in this and subsequent articles are related directly or indirectly to the process of determining the maximum for…

The Sensitivity Analysis of Critical Force in Box Compression Test

T.Garbowski, G.Przybyszewski
Polish Paper Review, Vol. 71(5), pp. 275-280, 2015
The paper presents a detailed analysis of global stability of FEFCO boxes. The analysis assumed that the boxes are made of corrugated cardboard with 3 or 5 layers. The flute cross sections (fluting), due to their periodicity are homogenized (i.e. the effective parameter…